Trees have a greater longevity than other types of plants. They have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 billion mature trees in the world.
A study conducted by Yale University and later published in the journal Nature, estimates that there are about 3 billion trees on Earth, and their number has decreased by 46% since human civilization began, 10 giving an average of 422 trees per person, but every year 15,000 million copies are lost.
They are an important component of the natural landscape because they prevent erosion and provide an ecosystem protected from inclement weather on and below its foliage. They also play an important role in producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as well as moderating temperatures in the ground.
Distribution and habitat
There are trees all over the world, the tropical fringes being particularly rich in tree species diversity. The tropics are found in the tropical and equatorial rainforests of Central America, South America, Africa, and Asia. But there are also trees in temperate zones and it reaches very high latitudes. In the latter case, forests tend to have less species diversity and are made up of one or a few species.
They are a predominant part of the ecosystem of the continents because they prevent erosion, constituting the primary elements of the landscape, agriculture, the so-called forest ecosystems, forests and jungles, in addition to being dispersed in environments such as savannas or river banks. Trees are of great ecological importance, since they fix the soil, preventing the thin fertile layer from being swept away by rains or winds. It provides shelter and food for numerous animal species.
The degree of humidity and the nature of the terrain usually determine what type of forest will occur, and not just the temperature or latitude. The higher the humidity, the thicker the forest. The aridity determines that the trees are in isolated specimens or groves around a water source, such as a well or a river. Depending on the height, some species or others will be given. Normally in the lower parts there will be hardwood forests such as oaks, beech and chestnut trees, and higher up the conifers will appear.
Various biotopes are largely defined by the trees that inhabit them, such as the temperate deciduous forest. A landscape of trees scattered over a wide space is the savannah. A forest of great age is called a primary forest.
There are several types of classifications within tree species. By the type of leaf, it is possible to distinguish between deciduous or planifolios, which lose their foliage during part of the year, normally the cold season in temperate climates, and the arid season in hot and arid climates, and evergreen, which is not that do not lose the leaves, but do not lose them all at the same time or at an annual rate, but longer.
With information from